Based on the award-winning tabletop card game Lost Cities by world-renowned board game designer Reiner Knizia, Lost Cities VR is a two-player strategy game that transports you to unexplored regions and mythical realms. Can you outwit your opponent and make the most profit as you compete to be the first to discover the ancient lost cities?

Posts by Landon Butterworth

Developing a mobile-optimized opponent AI for Lost Cities VR

- by Landon Butterworth

By Landon Butterworth

About a month ago, I started on the task of creating an artificial intelligence system for our Lost Cities VR game. It's a fairly simple game concept compared to many board games, but it provides some unique challenges from an AI perspective.

The game consists of 60 cards, separated into 5 expeditions, or "suits" in classic card game terminology. Each expedition consists of 3 investment cards and the numbers 2-10 for a total of 12 cards in each. The point of the game is to finish the game with a higher score than your opponent. Each player is dealt 8 cards, and points are earned by playing cards on a player's expedition.

Cards must be played in ascending order and the act of playing the first card on a new expedition comes with a cost of -20 points. Cards are worth the value shown on the card with the exception of investment cards, which must be played before any numerical card and act as an incremented multiplier. For example playing 1 investment card at the beginning of an expedition changes it from 1x points to 2x, if you add another investment card it becomes 3x the points with a maximum of 4x points (3 investment cards).

There is an additional bonus if a single player has 8 or more cards played in one expedition, their initial -20 points for that expedition gets wiped out. If you need a better explanation than that, take a few minutes to check out this YouTube video - "Lost Cities Instructions".

If we break the game down to its simplest form and look at it from strictly an AI perspective, we can say that it is an adversarial two player zero-sum game with imperfect information.

Goals for the AI

We began by establishing a few goals that we felt were important to the resulting gameplay.

1. It must be fair

It would have been easy to create a system that has access to all the information related to the game, including what cards were in the pickup pile, the other players hand, etc. But we didn't want users to feel cheated or have a disadvantage beyond how they choose to play their hands.

That being said, we thought an AI with a perfect memory would still be fair. It's not too much of a stretch to memorize every card that has been discarded, or the order they appear in each discard pile, nor is it unlikely that if your opponent picks up a card from a discard pile that any human player would note that action and retain that information to affect their strategy going forward.

2. It must be consistent

We wanted to create an AI system that consistently came up with good scores. Now I know this sounds like a very obvious thing, but there is a balancing act that between the maximum score and the average score. It's very easy to create a system that comes up with a maximum score that blows everything else out of the water but that tends to be more risky, meaning that the minimum score after many games would be as bad as the max score was good (we're talking in the -115 area).

We ended up setting a target average score of 30 points, with a minimum no lower than -20.

3. It must be adjustable

We wanted to create a system that could be easily adapted for different difficulty levels. Essentially we wanted everything in the system to be affected by changing 2 or 3 values that would allow different weights for different actions. We also wanted to be able to adjust when or even if the AI would play an investment card through tweaking evaluation thresholds.

4. Personality

Each person on our team has a very different idea of the best way to approach Lost Cities. For example, Les will often write a whole expedition off early on and start discarding every card that he comes across from that expedition. John waits and waits... and waits for investment cards on an expedition he feels is strong, even if it means throwing out some other valuable cards, Rachael tries very hard to only play a few expeditions but almost always ends up with cards played on all five, and I play almost entirely based on the cards in my hand. If I can get points from an expedition, chances are I've already started playing it.

We wanted to incorporate some of our personal playing styles into the AI system. This could be easily solved by adding in flag variables or additional weights to allow for certain play styles when they are enabled or disabled.

Initial thoughts

The first thing I thought of was a minimax set up. It would actually be expectimax because of the imperfect information and element of randomness.

However, because of the way the game is structured, specifically the initial -20 points when starting a new expedition, evaluating the current utility of the game state cannot be based on a player's actual score. This has implications for some of the greedy algorithms I was looking at using as well.

One thing about Lost Cities that is very interesting is if you have the cards 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in the same expedition that still only adds up to 20 points, which has a net value of 0.

A human player understands that playing those cards would be a smart move because there is a chance to pick up a 7, 8, 9, or 10 and you are very close to getting the 8 card bonus. But from an AI perspective, playing the first card is -18 points and that's 5 turns (10 ply's) in the negative before seeing any benefit.

In a simulation-based system it is likely that such a move would be pruned from any game tree early on and not even evaluated to see the long term benefit. So we had to come up with an alternative way of evaluating the utility of a player's hand other than score.

Monte Carlo Tree Search

This realization led me to a Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) system. MCTS systems are most often used in games with perfect information (games where all the information is available to both players) such as Chess, Checkers, Connect 4, and Go.

But recently this system has been adapted to play games like Poker and Settlers of Catan where very little information is known about the opponent, so I thought this would be a prime candidate for our Lost Cities AI and began diving into research papers covering the topic.

MCTS is a simulation based approach that uses randomness to decide which branch to explore and expand. Typically each simulation would be played out until the end state of the game is reached, but with Lost Cities having a minimum of 22 turns for each player (44 ply's), that's not really feasible.

Also the number of simulations required to get a "good" decision is related to the branching factor of the game tree since randomness is involved to increase the possibility of every option being explored, you must increase the number of simulations or make the pruning algorithm more aggressive.

Here is where we hit an impasse: This all has to be done in the background, on a mobile phone, while continuing to render the game at 60 FPS.

To see any real benefit from a Monte Carlo style simulation for a game like Lost Cities you need to run around 350 simulations, and as I mentioned earlier, those simulations have to go at least 5 turns deep (10 ply's).

While this isn't impossible, the delay in game play caused by these simulations would undoubtedly cause some players to get frustrated and quit playing, and increasing the aggressiveness of the pruning often eliminates what would turn out to be the best move.

Her name is Gwen, and she is beautiful...

In the end, we were forced to move away from the Monte Carlo Tree Search method in favour of a more efficient but "dumber" method that I have affectionately named Gwen.

I came up with a general strategy evaluation function that performs consistently well at a very low cost. She follows my playing style very closely by evaluating each expedition in her hand separately and comparing the results. She uses an investment threshold to ensure she will not play an investment card on an expedition that returns a value lower than the threshold and a play threshold to play an expedition without an investment card.

There are quite a few extras to the method and a bunch of edge cases surrounding it, but the core function came down to this:

result += (
        * (
            number of cards higher than the current card
            + 1
            – number of cards higher that are visible
    / (cards remaining * 2)
    * average value of numeric cards in same expedition

The result generated by this equation determines when it is appropriate to start an expedition and whether or not to play an investment card on it. It executes this calculation for each card in each expedition starting with the lowest and working its way up. The result is obviously cumulative.

The importance of this is that it accounts for the number of potential cards remaining in the pickup pile that are higher than the card being evaluated.

Outside of this initial decision, we also maintain "to play" and "to play next" lists that track which cards are left to play before the game is over and which cards should be played on the next available play, respectively.

If you have played a yellow 5 and you have a yellow 8 in your hand and you can see your opponent has played a yellow 6 and 7, the yellow 8 should be the card you play next. There is nothing that you can possibly pick up that would make that a bad play.

It also compares the number of items in these lists with the number of cards left. If there are less cards left than 2x the number of items in the list (meaning there are less turns left than cards left to play), it will pick up any card from the discard piles to extend the gameplay.

We don't want to give everything that's happening behind the scenes away, but we want to give you a little insight into the development process and the thought that went into making a robust and intelligent system.

Creating multiple AI personalities

As I stated earlier, one of our goals was to have different personalities for the AI to create a different experience depending on which character you're facing. All of the different personalities will use this core equation to calculate the utility of each expedition, but depending on a few flag variables that information could be handled very differently.

For example, John's play style is to wait for as many investment cards on a high scoring expedition before playing. For that personality we simply set the flag "waitForInvestment" and try to play the expedition with the 2nd highest utility (if it is above the play threshold of course). That will continue while there is something else playable or if there is a safe discard available (meaning it won't benefit the opponent or be detrimental to the AI).

To create Les's play style we simply mark an expedition early on as a throw away and stop evaluating that expedition. We're still figuring out which personalities to ship with, because based on the early experiments the average score drops in both of the above cases, but for the overall player experience and storyline they might just add that extra little something to the gameplay. We won't know for sure until we do more outside play testing.


While we're not finished with the AI yet, this is where we stand now after about a month of R&D. I am still holding out hope that we will be able to come up with a more efficient way of using the Monte Carlo system. Maybe we will be able to find a balance between efficiency and intelligence that will work on mobile devices.

As we start working on the menu system, audio, models, graphics, and animations, it will remain in the back of our minds and whenever there is a break in these other areas, we will keep improving the AI until we're completely happy with our final solution.